Notes on Control in Management:

Meaning Of Control:

      Control in management is primarily goal oriented and is the basis of all other management functions. Its basic function is to see that the actual performance is not deviated from the management goals. Controlling is the last phase in the management process.

      Controlling is a comparison and clarification process. With the help of this process, a balance in me organisational structure can be achieved and maintained. It helps in taking corrective action in case of deviation from the planned course of action.

       In the words of Henry Fayol,"control consists in recycling whether everything occurs in conformity, with plan adopted, instruction issued principles established."

Importance Of Control:

      The scope and importance of control is very wide it virtually covers all the areas of business- policies, procedures, man, machines human relations, public relation, money, research, development and so on.

      Control simplifies supervisions by pointing out expected standard of performance and the significant deviations. It keeps the subordinates under check and brings discipline among them. A good control system provides timely informations to the managers which is very much useful in taking corrective actions.

      In more specific terms, the importance of control may be stated below:

  1. Control provides the basis of future course of action and reduces the chances of mistakes being repeated in the future.
  2. It provides timely informations to the managers which helps to take corrective measures at the right- time.
  3. Control helps to ensure that plans are being implemented in the right sense. It points out the short comings of the plans and also helps the managers in functions like organising, staffing and directing.
  4. Control process keeps the subordinates cations in their duties and brings discipline among them as because they know that they are being observed by their supervisors.
  5. It helps in coordinating various departments of the enterprise by providing them unity of actions.
Process Of Control:

       A man follows four basic steps to perform his control function. Firstly, he sets up standard of performance. After this, he will appraise the performance and compare whether the expected standard is met It there is any deviation or the standards are not being net, the man will take corrective steps, which is the last step.

       A manager to be in a position to exercise control must-

  1. Know what the situation is,
  2. Know what it should be,
  3. Know how to correct it,
  4. Have the authority to take corrective action.

       A detailed discussions of the basic steps involved in control is given below:

1. Establishment Of Standard:

       The first step in control process is establishment of standard of performance. Standard represents criteria for measurement of performance. Standard should preferably be set in qualitative terms.

       Standard should be accurate, acceptable and workable. It should not be based merely on past performance but should be based on scientific analysis.

2. Measurement Of Performance:

       The second step is the appraisal of performance against the standard laid down. This involves two activities:-

  1. Measurement of performance in numerical terms.
  2. Comparison with the standard.

       Performance should be measured both in qualitative and qualitative terms. Attitude or morale of workers cannot be measured quantitatively; they have to be measured qualitatively.

3. Finding Out Strategic Control Points:

       When performance equals its level there is not much need of controlling actions. The real worry arise when after comparing performance with its standard, it is found that there has been short falls.

       Hence, the third crucial step is to find out the defects or deficiencies. The deviations may be due to. Some defects in raw materials, machines process or some other causes.

4. Taking Corrective Actions:

       The final step is to take corrective actions so that no deviations occur again and the objectives of the organisation are achieved. The corrective action may involve removing some obstacles, repairing a machine, transferring an employee or putting in some extra currencies.

       Corrective action is of two types-

  1. Remedial: It is taken is of two types
  2. Preventive is always preferred evidently
Essentials Of Good Control System:

       Effective and adequate control system is indispensable for an organisation to conform the events with the plans and objectives established.

       The following are the requirements of sound control system:

1. Need and Nature of Activity:

       The need and nature of activity from business to business depending upon its size. It also differs from departments to departments within the organisation. For instance, the need and nature of sales department will not be the same from those of finance department.

       So, it is necessary that the control system should reflect the need and nature of activity benefiting a particular type of work performance.

2. Prompt Report of Deviation:

       The idea of control system is to detect deviation it any and take necessary steps of rectification.

3. Forward Looking:

       Forward Looking requires that forecasting of deviations should be made before completion of a job in or faulty way so that the Manager may take necessary steps to set them in the right direction and at the right time.

4. Objectives Standards:

       Objectives provide control standards against which actual performance needs to be evaluated. So the objectives standards should be definite, clear and feasible. These standards may be expressed quantitatively and qualitatively.

5. Flexibility:

       It should be noted that control system is a means but not an end in itself to achieve the objectives in a planned way. It has to be dynamic in character to adapt to the changes in the plan caused by unforeseen circumstances.

6. Organisation Pattern:

       Control system should reflect the organisation pattern as it co- ordinates the work of different employees with assigned duties and responsibilities.

7. Economy:

      The system of control should be economic in the sense that a manager should know and understand what a particular control system is worth and what is its cost. Otherwise, the burden of expenditure beyond the capacity of the firm will lead to its liquidation.

8. Understandability:

      The adopted control system should be within the full understanding of the manager and the employees.

      Control system based upon mathematical formulas complex break even charts etc may not be understandable by the managers at all levels of the firm.

9. Simply And Balanced:

      This means that control data should be presented in a simple and balanced way so as to enable the manager to concentrate on his job in a benefiting manner.

10. Worker Oriented:

       Control system should lay greater emphasis to workers rather than to work. This is intended to take a special interest in human elements and allow greater freedom to than because control is exercised on human beings who handle the work and are accountable for results.

Relationship Between Planning And Control:

      Planning is a perquisite condition for effective controlling. Without planning controlling cannot be accomplished. Planning chalks out the desired performance and controlling helps in executing the actual performance. Planning action and control are closely related managerial functions. These phases of the managerial task cannot be completely separated in practice. The system approach emphasis the integrative nature of these activities.

       Planning is concerned with ascertaining that the goals are set by plan accomplished Activities are set into motion as a result of Managerial planning.

       They are kept on the right track by means of control process. Management control involves a mixture of both planning and control activities.

Limitation Of Control:
  1. Control system has no control over external factor it can operate only on the internal factors.
  2. Control cannot establish satisfactory standards for intangible performance factors will as such loyalty of workmen etc.
  3. Lack of authority and timely informations often impede control operations.
  4. Subordinates over whom they are exercised as such they sometimes lead to adverse reactions do not like control operation as a rule.
  5. Analysis of deviation taking corrective actions proves expensive, time consuming; need expertise and often stops the production cycle. These are its special practical difficulties.