Notes on Delegation Of Authority in Management:

Meaning Of Delegation:

       In management, delegation of authority is the process of confirming authority and responsibility by a manager to his subordinates to accomplish a particular work within the time frame. The following are some precise definitions:

Defined by L.A. Appley:

       L.A. Appley defines delegation "As the ability to get results through others"

Defined by O.S. Hiner:

       In the words of Hiner, "Delegation takes place when one person give another the right to perform a work on his behalf and in his name and the second person accepts the corresponding duty to do what is required of him."

Requisites of Sound Delegation:

       Unless carefully recognized in practice, delegation may be ineffective and may foil the organisation and management process may be adversely affected. The following are the principles of effective delegation:

  1. The duty assigned to subordinates must be clearly defined. The subordinates must be made clear of the plan of work, its objectives and goals.
  2. The subordinate should be given adequate authority to do the work. Authority and responsibility should bear logical relationship with each other. The authority must also be limited so that the subordinate may not bear excessive authority than required.
  3. The selection of person should be done in the light of the job to be done. Right person should be selected for work considering his technical competence, experience and physical strength.
  4. The communication system and the co- ordination agency should work property.
  5. The subordinates should be motivated by incentives of different kinds.
  6. Adequate control system should be established so that the subordinate can measure his own performance and take corrective action in case of deviations.
  7. Finally, the subordinates should be made accountable to his superior for the performance of work.
Elements of Delegation:

       Delegation of authority involves certain actions which may be expressed or implied. They are known as elements or components of delegation. The following are those:

1. Assignment of Responsibility:

       Delegation of authority assigns certain duties or responsibilities to a subordinate asking him to do in a clear in manner what is expected to do. The duties to be performed by the subordinate may be listed and also the target to be achieved may be sent.

2. Granting of Authority:

       The delegation must also delegate authority to the subordinate to perform the duty assigned to him. No body can perform a duty unless he has the required and matching authority.

3. Creation of Accountability:

       The subordinate must also be made obligated for the work assigned to him. Accountability is logically derieved from authority. The final phase is holding the person accountable to the superior regarding the assigned responsibility.

       Thus responsibility, authority and account ability are the three fundamental contributes of delegation. They are like three legs of a stool dependent on each other.

Importance Of Delegation:

       The need for delegation arises from physical impossibility and natural limitations of a single individual to do everything of an enterprise.

       In the words of Lounsbury Fish, "An individual is only one man power. Single-handed, he can accomplish only so much in a day. The only way he can achieve more is through delegation- through dividing his load and sharing his responsibilities with others."

       In the light of the above words, the importance or benefits of delegation may be stated as follows:

1. Reduces Executive Burden:

       By delegating the time consuming duties of minor nature, to the subordinates, an executive gets more time to do more fruitful effective work and shoulder his responsibilities benefiting his position.

2. Facilitates Business Expansion:

       When the division of duties and responsibilities to different individuals and levels, the scope of business expansion increases.

       Giant industrial translation is the perfect art of delegation.

3. Enables Subordinates to assume responsibility:

       Delegation forces the subordinates to assume greater responsibilities, take important decisions, broaden their outlook and develop or increase their performance. This is no mean achievement for an enterprise.

4. Improves Morale:

       Delegation brings in job satisfaction to the subordinates. This ultimately leads to improvement of morale of the workers for initiative and team spirit.

5. Maintaining Co- ordination:

       Delegation establishes an all sides structural relationship inside the organisation, this helps to maintain unity of actions and binds the different segments of the business into a whole one and secures the required Co- ordination.

       Delegation is thus the dynamics of management and is essential for the very existence of an organisation.

       Koontz and O, Donnell aptly remarked. "Just as authority is the key to Managers job delegation of authority is the key to organisation."

Defects Of Delegation:

1. Psendo Delegation:

       Delegation may be of different types- verbal, written, formal, informal, general or specific. These often creates confusion and fuss and the ultimate meaning of delegation becomes obscured. This ultimately becomes dangerous for the organisation and management.

2. Wrong Delegation:

       The process of delegation is often characterized by wrong delegation i.e; Choosing wrong man for the wrong purpose. This happens due to many reasons. What is to be delegated and what is not to be delegated is a matter of judicious calculation and herein lies the confusion.

3. Re- delegation:

       Re- delegation of authority to successive levels of organisation creates a distance between the original source of authority and the point of actual operation.

4. Rigid system:

       Delegation is a dynamic thing, but the aspect is often ignored and delegation is considered as once- for all concept. This breaks up the relationship between the delegator and the delegates ignoring the creation aspect of a new relationship.

5. Human Frailties:

       Once vested with responsibilities, human being often develops the spirit of dictatorship. This restricts the scope of delegation.

6. In capacity of Subordinates:

       Many Subordinates lacks initiative and self confidence because of the lack of proper training. Delegation in such a situation does it make any sense.

7. Dysfunctional effects and Defects:

       Abnormal functioning arises due to specialization inherent in delegation. Too much specialization leads to internalization which incorporates within the groups and guiding principles.

8. Ill- Defined span of control:

       It deals with the member of persons the manager can manager effectively. The number should not be too few to utilize the manager's time and energy. Again, it should not be too large to control effectively. This danger of delegation should not be out of sight.

Features Of Delegation:

       The following are the main features of delegation.

  1. It implies division of labour and specialization.
  2. It chooses the subordinates competent to do the task.
  3. It determines the number of workers that a Manager can control effectively.
  4. It determines the levels of organisational hierchy which can linked up properly to make effective delegation.
  5. It involves confirmation of authority on the delegates so that he can handle the situation properly.
  6. It makes the delegates accountable for the entrusted responsibility.
  7. It is based on clear understanding and good faith between the delegator and the delegates.
  8. It involves clear division and defination of the area of authority and responsibility.

       The main features of delegation embrace both a process and a device, They are again both dynamic and static. It is a device in the hands of the top executives to get the tasks performed with the help of the subordinates.