Notes on Meaning And Characteristics Of Planning In Management Function:

       Simply, planning means thinking in advance before doing something. Planning establishes goals or objectives and identifies the way to achieve them. Planning is one of the most important functions not only in matter of business but also in every walk of life from house. Hold to govt. level. The following are some of the precise definitions.

Defined by koontz and O, Daniel:

       In the opinion of koontz and O, Daniel, "Planning is an intellectual process, the conscious determination of courses of action, the basing of decisions on purpose facts and considered estimates."

Defined by G.R. Terry:

       In the words of Terry, "Planning is the selecting and relating of facts in the visualization and formation of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired results."

Defined by Peter Drucker:

       As penned by peter Drucker, "Planning is the continuous process of making present entrepreneurial (risk taking) decisions systematically and with best possible knowledge of their futurity."

Features or Characteristics Of Planning:

1. Goal oriented:

       Planning is goal oriented in the sense that plans are prepared and implemented to achieve certain objectives.

2. Basis of Managerial Function:

       Planning is the foundation of management process. It is the basis of all management function such as organising, control etc. without proper planning there is nothing to organize or to control.

3. Pervasive:

       As a Managerial function, the nature of planning vary with their authority and level. Managers at higher levels spend more time and effort on planning than managers at lower level.

4. Interdependent process:

       Planning affects and is affected by the programmes of different departments in so far as these programmes constitute an integrated effort.

5. Future Oriented:

       Planning is forward looking and is always a future oriented process.

6. Forecasting:

       The essence of planning is forecasting. Plans are synthesis of various forecasts.

7. Continuous process:

       The very nature of planning is dynamic. Old plans are revised and new plans get implemented in case of environmental changes.

8. Intellectual process:

       Planning is a conceptual exercise. It involves national decision-making, requires imagination, fore sight and sound judgment. It is a process of thinking before doing; the entire process of planning is based upon facts and informations.

9. Alternative course of planning:

       Planning may also be done choose an alternative course of action. If there is only one way out the need of planning doesn't arise.

10. Flexible process:

       Effective planning demands flexibility. The principle of irrigational changed i.e.; changes with environmental changes apply to planning.