Notes on Scientific Management Or Taylorism:

       There is no doubt that scientific approach to management was brought forward by L. Uric but the fact cannot be denied that the pioneer of Scientific Management or Taylorism is Frederick Winslow Taylor who brought an enquiring mind and scientific method into industrial organisation this method goes by the name of scientific Management. It means the art of knowing exactly what is to be done and the best method of doing it.

       The Following are some precise defination.

Defined by F.W. Taylor:

       In the words of F.W. Taylor. "Scientific Management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way."

Defined by Peter F. Drucker:

       In the opinion of peter F. Drucker, the core of scientific Management is, "The operational study of work, the analysis of work into its simplest elements and the systematic improvement of workers performance of each element."

Objectives Of Scientific Management:
  1. To develop a true science for each element of a man's job.
  2. To replace the rule of thumb method.
  3. To promote scientific selection, education, training and development of worker for every job.
  4. To emphasise on equal distribution of work and responsibility between Management and workmen.
  5. To develop management responsibility for planning and workmen execution of plan.
  6. To spread around intimate and friendly cooperation between Management and workers.
  7. To ensure that work is done in accordance with the principle of science, which has been developed in accordance with the planned job and task.
Advantages Of Scientific Management:
  1. To refrain trial and error approach and adopt application of scientific methods in all aspects for increased productivity.
  2. Separation of planning and execution increased the productivity of workers.
  3. It created a sense of security and belonging as it emphasised on welfare of both Management and worker.
  4. Discard of trial and error methods helps to utilize scarce resources to optimum.
  5. It benefits both people and nation. To the people (management and workers) it increases productivity and profit and ensures allowances rapidly industrial development with industrial peace and increased employment opportunity.
Principles Of Scientific Management:

       Frederick Winslow Taylor better known as the father of scientific Management published his book "The principles of scientific Management" in 1911, which is perhaps the most important book on the subject.

       Taylor summed up his approach in the following words-

  1. Science, not a rule of thumb.
  2. Harmony not discarded.
  3. Cooperation not individualism
  4. Development of each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperity.
  5. Equitable division of work and responsibility between Management and labour.

       The analysis of the whole contribution of F.W. Taylor May be presented in the form of principle of scientific Management which is as follows:

1) Separation of planning and Doing:

       Before Taylor's scientific Management, a worker himself used to decide how he ad to work and what instruments were necessary. Taylor emphasised that planning function should be separated from actual performance and be handed over to the specialists.

2) Functional Foremanship:

       Taylor has voiced functional foremanship to supervise and give direction in this system Eight persons are involved to direct the activities of the workers out of four persons-

  1. Route Clerk.
  2. Instruction card man.
  3. Time and cost clerk.
  4. Disciplinarian and Related with planning functions.

       The remaining four persons i.e.;

  1. Speed Lom
  2. Inspector Lom
  3. Repair Lom
  4. Gang Lom, are concerned with operating functions.

3) Scientific Recruitment and Training:

       According to Taylor, selection of workers should be on scientific basis- their education, experience, physical strength should be considered a worker should be given the job for which he is physically and technically suitable i.e.; a right man should be placed in the right job.

       After placement, training should be provided to the workers to make them more efficient.

4) Different price Rate system:

       Workers are motivated by financial incentives. Under this workers at higher efficiency are paid higher wages and workers of slow workers of low are penalized while the fast/ efficient workers are suitable rewarded.

5) Shop Management:

       In every industry, following studies are supposed to be done for efficient factory Management:

a) Time study:

       It involves the determination of time to complete a work.

b) Motion study:

       It involves determination nation of wasteful movements of parts and persons.

c) Fatigue study:

       It states that workers should be given appropriate rest at appropriate intervals. The fatigue study shows the time and frequency of rest.

6) Standardization:

      There should be a separate planning department so as to standardize the instrument and tools, period of work, amount of work, working condition etc.

7) Friendly Cooperation between Management and workers:

       Scientific Management depends upon the Co- operation between Management and workers. For this, Co- operation should be a mental change in both parties from conflict to Cooperation.

       In a nut shell, it can be concluded that Taylor was the pioneer in introducing scientific Reasoning to the discipline of Management.