Notes On Coordination:

            Coordination is an integrating function that synchronises the various inputs such as natural resources, human resources, human efforts and behavior, goal and timing. Different Management Thinkers have different views regarding coordination. Some recognizes it as a separate Function of Management while others assert that it is automatically achieved by performing Managerial Functions

            The following are some of the precise definitions

Defined by Mooney and Reilly:

            According to them, "Coordination is the orderly arrangement of group effort to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose."

Defined by Dalton McFarland:

            In the words of Dalton McFarland, "Coordination is the process whereby an executive develops an orderly pattern of group effort among his subordinates and secures unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose."

Characteristics Of Coordination:

            The following are the Features or Nature or characteristics of coordination:

1. Group Effort:

            Coordination is exclusively relevant for group efforts and not individual efforts. An individual's effort does not affect Functioning of others and as such the need for coordination does not arise.

2. Unity of Action:

            Coordination emphasises. Unity of efforts with single aim and unified group efforts. Synchronized and integrated group effort is the core of coordination.

3. Managerial Responsibility:

            The Function of Coordination is basically a Managerial responsibility. The Manager has to synchronise the efforts of his effective achievement of the goals of the organization.

4. Common Purpose:

            Effective Coordination can be achieved only if the groups have a common purpose or goal. The Manager should see that group efforts always uphold the common purpose and not individual aim.

5. Dynamic Process:

            Coordination is dynamic in nature. It is designed and implemented according to the need of the hour. A static Coordination cannot stand by time.

6. Group Selection:

            As Coordination is a group efforts so group Selection is an important aspect. Performance of every individual cannot be same be it physical a conceptual. As such, the Mix and match of group should be made in such a way that sound Coordination and performance can be achieved from group efforts.

7. Coordination is different From Cooperation:

            It should be noted that Coordination and Coordination are two different aspect. Coordination implies group efforts for a common purpose with specified time and goal specified. On the Contrary Cooperation is purely individual. It implies willingness of individual to help each other.

Techniques Of Coordination:

            All Managerial Functions, be it Planning, organising, Staffing, directing or controlling; aims at getting things done by others and it is to be done by Coordinated efforts of others. Sound Coordination is Feature by Specific Techniques; The Following are some of those:

1. Vertical Coordination:

            Vertical coordination harmonizes the works allocated to different levels in the organization. A Manager because of his defined position can impose vertical Coordination on his subordinates He can issue orders and instruction and define their Functions and Schedule of work and time.

2. Leadership Quality:

            A Manager can also use his leadership qualities to bring about Coordination among his/ her subordinates. The Subordinates May be persuaded and motivated to work into group efforts. This includes harmonious working condition and reduces conflicting situation.

3. Creation of Committee:

            Creation of Committee helps to achieve horizontal Coordination by sharing the efforts of Functional, divisional or Sectional units with each other. It also helps in free and open exchange of ideals, proposals and Solutions and thereby solving many organizational problems.

4. Effective Communication:

            Properly timed, clear and complete communication brings about Coordination among various departments and individuals by making them clear about their respective areas and scope of authority and responsibility. Both Formal and informal Channels of Communications Should be used as and when required.

5. Creation of special cell or Department:

            In big Firms, where the Member of working personnel is numerous, Special cell or Department should be, created to serve the purpose of Coordination. Managed by Specialist, the basic responsibility is to work as intermediary between the departmental heads and subordinates. This helps in proper transmission of informations to and fro and greatly helps in decision Making Process.

6. Staff Meeting:

            Organization of periodic staff Meeting with open and free discussion also proves highly productive in achieving Coordination.

7. Voluntary Coordination:

            Voluntary Coordination helps to settle the problems and issues of different departments at the same level at their own and thereby leave the top level with their own issues. But Voluntary Coordination can be achieved only with well. Defined organisational structure, system, harmonious working atmosphere.

Principles Of Coordination:

            Mary parker Follet has penned the Following principles of effective Coordination:

1) Direct Contact:

            Interpersonal relationship among responsible persons helps to achieve coordination. Personal contacts minimises misunderstanding and conveys the feelings, views and ideas and Solutions.

2) Early start:

            Coordination should start at a very early stage a planning process. Organisational members should be invited for their ideas and suggestion in formulating policies and setting goals.

3) Reciprocal Relationship:

            In an organization, all Factors in a Situation are reciprocally related. They influence each other and are influenced by other. Even with individual this is true. Hence, all efforts, actions and goals are reciprocally interrelated and are integrated in the same way. No single Factor can work alone in isolation.

4) Continuity:

            Coordination is a continuous process. It uninterrupted process keeps a hawk?s eye in the smooth functioning of the organisation and thereby achieving organization goal.

5) Self- Coordination:

            This principle has been emphasised by Alvin Brown. According to this principle, Functions and departments affect each other. However, if their actions are modified by them to suit their needs favorably for each other at their own level, then self- coordination is said to be achieved.