Notes On Definition And Characterisctics Of Management:

            The fundamental characteristics of management is that:

            Firstly, management is a continous process of related activities. Each of the functions relate and complement to other. It is hard to consider management functions as isolated, as management requires each activity to complement one another. When you as a manager engage in one function, you in effect also start the process of another function.

            Secondly, management is also about its involvment, concentration and absolute focus on achievement of organizational goals. In broader sense, management is mainly interested in identifying the wider goals of the organizational and application of the different management functions in order to achieve the those. Each function when applied in true sense and with justification takes the organization closer towards achievement of its goal.

            Finally, management thrives in achieving the organizational goals by working with all the people around and skillful utilization of scarce organizational resources including financial resources or physical equipment. Also directing and guiding the staff towards the objectives is an important aspect of management.

            The essence of management is that it is a dynamic process with large number of elements and activities as its core part. The dynamic and social element of management means that management functions are different from operational functions. Operational functions refer to activities like finances, marketing and purchases, while the management functions differ depending on the organizational level at which they take place.

            The functions of management remain the same, yet are essentially different depending on the organizational hierarchy. A manager at the higher level will be involved in decision making activities and the manager at the lower level will be involved in carrying out the decision so made. The core concepts might be the same- achieving the goals of the entity, but they are dynamic in manifestation.

Management functions might remain the same, but the management processes people use can differ. The management style or process can depend on the organization, the manager in question, and even the organizational objectives. It is the call of the manager to carry out the management functions and style of functioning.

            Management is the art of getting things done by others to accomplish the desired goals and objective of the entity through scientific utilization of scarce available resources by proper coordination and integration of manpower.

            It is difficult to give a precise definition of the term "Management" some authors look at the subject of Management as an art while others treat it as science. The following are some definations of leading Management thinkers:

Defined by F.W. Taylor:

            As penned by F.W. Taylor, "Management is the Art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done in the best and cheapest way."

Defined by Henry Fayol:

            In the opinion of Henry Fayol, "To Management is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."

Defined by L.A. Appley:

            In the words of L.A. Appley, "Management is the development of people and not direction of things."

            The definitions quoted above. Reflects different approaches. No single defination puts the subject Matter in the true perspective. In the present situation, Management is a Function of Four P.S. They are

  1. Productivity
  2. People
  3. Profit
  4. Public Responsibility.
Characterisctics Of Management:

            The analysis of the following definations reveals the following characteristics of it:

1. Management Is A Process:

            Management is a process of planning. Organising, coordinating and controlling. These functions are continuously and simultaneously done.

2. It Is A Social Process:

            The importance of management is that it takes place through people. Time importance of human factor in Management cannot be ignored.

3. Management Involves Group Efforts:

            The goals and objectives of an organization can be effectively attained by a group rather than by an individual.

4. It Is A Multi- Disciplinary Object:

            The discipline of Management draws upon many other disciplines such as sociology, physiology, economics Mathematics and other social sciences.

5. Management Is An Art As Well As Science:

            Management is an art though not as perfect as music or painting. Management can be described as a science though not a pure science when compared to physics, Chemistry or Biology.

            Management is a distinct type of work. It involves "getting things done through others," rather than "doing it yourself."

6. Management Is Required At All Levels Of The Organization:

            Management is required at all the three levels top, middle, lower levels of the organization. The Managers at all the levels performs the same Functions though they differ in degree. E.g. Top Management has to take many important decisions than Managers at lower levels.